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一级方程式安全带技术分析 保障车手生命的关键
  时间:2006年04月14日10:00   来源:搜狐体育   我来说两句我来说两句(0)
 

  The seat belts in a Formula One car not only give the driver a sense of security, they also directly protect him from serious injury in an accident. In combination with a carbon-fibre monocoque, customised seat, helmet and overalls, these belts help make the Formula One cockpit a pretty safe place to work.

  一级方程式赛车的安全带不仅能够给车手一种安全感,而且它们还能直接保护车手,免于在事故中受到严重的伤害。配合碳纤车体结构、定制的座椅、头盔和赛车服,这些安全带有助于将一级方程式驾舱打造成为一个非常安全的地方。

  Amazingly, although driver helmets and overalls were stipulated by Formula One racing’s governing body, the FIA, as far back as the early ’60s, safety belts have only been compulsory features in a Formula One car since 1972.

  不过让人惊讶的是,一级方程式管理机构国际汽联早在二十世纪六十年代就已经对车手的头盔和赛车服作出了相关规定,但是直到1972年安全带才被强制要求安装在一级方程式赛车中。

  Formula One drivers are strapped into the cockpit by a six point harness, similar to that found in a fighter jet. Two shoulder straps, two pelvic straps and two leg straps allow them just enough freedom of movement to be able to steer and reach the various switches and buttons in their field of vision.

  一级方程式车手是通过六点式安全带固定在驾舱里的,同喷气式战斗机的类似。通过两条肩带、两条腰带和两条腿带的固定,使得车手的自由活动程度仅仅能够满足于转动方向盘以及触及各种视界内的开关和按钮

  The drivers are pushed tightly into their seat, so they need the help of a mechanic to fasten the belts. However, in an emergency, they are able to leave the car from the normal buckled position within the five seconds stipulated by the regulations, because all the individual belts can be released with a single twist of the hand. The task of the belts is clear: in the case of an accident, they should work with the compulsory Head And Neck Support (HANS) system to protect the driver from smashing against the steering wheel, and at the same time they absorb some of the impact energy.

  由于车手要被紧紧束缚在他们的座椅上,所以需要借助于技师来扣紧安全带。不过在紧急情况下,根据规则规定,他们还是可以在五秒钟之内通过正常的上扣位置离开赛车,因为所有单独的安全带都可以用手转动一下就可解开。安全带的功能很明显:在发生事故的情况下,安全带应该在强制的‘头颈支持系统’(HANS)配合下能够保护车手免受与方向盘撞击的伤害,同时它们还可以吸收部分冲击能量。

  “On the one hand, the belts must be strong enough to protect the driver from an impact,” says Williams’ Frank Dernie, according to team sponsors Allianz. “On the other hand, they also have to give enough to make sure that the driver isn't injured by the belts themselves in an emergency.”

  “一方面,安全带必须有足够的强度,以保护车手不受到撞击,”威廉姆斯的弗兰克-德尼尔说道。“另一方面,它们也必须保证在紧急情况下,车手不会受到安全带自身的伤害。”

  The manufacturers of the safety belts and the teams solve this dilemma with the help of extensive experiments that test the strength and the elasticity of the material. Generally, the belts are made of the textile fibre polyester, and sometimes have special monofibres woven laterally into them. They act as small laminated springs and keep the belt strap flat. In this way, the load is distributed better over the entire width of the belt strap. The fittings and tabs are generally made of titanium. After an accident, it must be possible to rescue the driver together with the seat from the car if the emergency services think it necessary.

  通过对所用材料的强度和弹性的广泛试验测试,安全带的制造商们和车队解决了这个矛盾。通常,安全带是用成纤聚酯织物制成的,有时也在其中加入横向的特殊单纤维织物。它们可以充当小小的叠片弹簧,让安全带保持平整度。这样,负载就可以被更好地分配到安全带的整个宽度上。配件和扣子通常是用钛做成的。在事故发生后,如果急救人员认为有必要,车手和座椅必须可以一起从赛车中取出。

  According to the FIA standard 8853/98, every fastening point of the belts must be able to withstand a load of 14.7 kilonewtons, the equivalent of roughly 1,470 kilograms. The belt widths must be between 44 and 76 millimetres (shoulders and legs) and between 50 and 76 millimetres (pelvis), depending on the most comfortable setting for the driver. The idea of comfort is always relative, at least if you believe Martin Brundle: “If the belts don’t hurt,” the ex-Formula One driver once said, “then they aren’t tightened hard enough!”

  根据国际汽联的标准8853/98,安全带的每个固定点必须能够承受14.7千牛顿的载荷,大约相当于1,470公斤的重量。安全带的宽度必须在44到76毫米之间(肩部和腿部),以及50到76毫米之间(腰部),具体宽度根据车手感觉最舒适的位置来确定。舒适度永远都是相对的,至少你应该相信前一级方程式车手马丁-布伦德尔所说的:“如果安全带没有弄疼你,那它们肯定还没有系紧!”

  (声明:F1官方网站版权所有,未经许可不得翻译、刊载,搜狐F1频道为唯一中文网络合法登载单位。 布丁翻译

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